## Table of contents

## Open Table of contents

## Introduction

This week, the machine learning course introduced an example of one variable linear regression. The example was really good, and it made it easy for me to understand some machine learning terms and concepts.

## Linear Model

if we have a data set of two features and two target values as shown below:

```
# Load our data set
x_train = np.array([1.0, 2.0]) #features
y_train = np.array([300.0, 500.0]) #target value
```

Where w and b are the parameters of this model, it is hoped that a set of w,b can fit the training data so that the predicted value obtained for each input x in the training set is minimally deviated from the actual value.

To achieve this, a cost function is introduced.

## Cost Function

Here, the denominator 2 is for the convenience of canceling out the coefficient of the reciprocal term. Square each error value (predicted value minus actual value) and accumulate them. The goal is to minimize the cost function in order to find the smallest.

```
#Function to calculate the cost
def compute_cost(x, y, w, b):
m = x.shape[0]
cost = 0
for i in range(m):
f_wb = w * x[i] + b
cost = cost + (f_wb - y[i])**2
total_cost = 1 / (2 * m) * cost
return total_cost
```

## Gradient Descent

*gradient descent* was described as:

where, parameters

The gradient is defined as:

The gradient descent algorithm is used to find the optimal values of the parameters `compute_gradient`

implements the gradient computation for linear regression.

```
def compute_gradient(x, y, w, b):
"""
Computes the gradient for linear regression
Args:
x (ndarray (m,)): Data, m examples
y (ndarray (m,)): target values
w,b (scalar) : model parameters
Returns
dj_dw (scalar): The gradient of the cost w.r.t. the parameters w
dj_db (scalar): The gradient of the cost w.r.t. the parameter b
"""
# Number of training examples
m = x.shape[0]
dj_dw = 0
dj_db = 0
for i in range(m):
f_wb = w * x[i] + b
dj_dw_i = (f_wb - y[i]) * x[i]
dj_db_i = f_wb - y[i]
dj_db += dj_db_i
dj_dw += dj_dw_i
dj_dw = dj_dw / m
dj_db = dj_db / m
return dj_dw, dj_db
```

Then the `gradient_descent`

function is implemented to update the parameters

```
def gradient_descent(x, y, w_in, b_in, alpha, num_iters, cost_function, gradient_function):
"""
Performs gradient descent to fit w,b. Updates w,b by taking
num_iters gradient steps with learning rate alpha
Args:
x (ndarray (m,)) : Data, m examples
y (ndarray (m,)) : target values
w_in,b_in (scalar): initial values of model parameters
alpha (float): Learning rate
num_iters (int): number of iterations to run gradient descent
cost_function: function to call to produce cost
gradient_function: function to call to produce gradient
Returns:
w (scalar): Updated value of parameter after running gradient descent
b (scalar): Updated value of parameter after running gradient descent
J_history (List): History of cost values
p_history (list): History of parameters [w,b]
"""
w = copy.deepcopy(w_in) # avoid modifying global w_in
# An array to store cost J and w's at each iteration primarily for graphing later
J_history = []
p_history = []
b = b_in
w = w_in
for i in range(num_iters):
# Calculate the gradient and update the parameters using gradient_function
dj_dw, dj_db = gradient_function(x, y, w , b)
# Update Parameters using equation (3) above
b = b - alpha * dj_db
w = w - alpha * dj_dw
# Save cost J at each iteration
if i<100000: # prevent resource exhaustion
J_history.append( cost_function(x, y, w , b))
p_history.append([w,b])
# Print cost every at intervals 10 times or as many iterations if < 10
if i% math.ceil(num_iters/10) == 0:
print(f"Iteration {i:4}: Cost {J_history[-1]:0.2e} ",
f"dj_dw: {dj_dw: 0.3e}, dj_db: {dj_db: 0.3e} ",
f"w: {w: 0.3e}, b:{b: 0.5e}")
return w, b, J_history, p_history #return w and J,w history for graphing
```

```
# initialize parameters
w_init = 0
b_init = 0
# some gradient descent settings
iterations = 10000
tmp_alpha = 1.0e-2
# run gradient descent
w_final, b_final, J_hist, p_hist = gradient_descent(x_train ,y_train, w_init, b_init, tmp_alpha, iterations, compute_cost, compute_gradient)
print(f"(w,b) found by gradient descent: ({w_final:8.4f},{b_final:8.4f})")
```

Finally, we found the optimal values of the parameters